In the next few small steps, children explore in more detail the properties of 2-D shapes, starting by counting the number of sides. Children need to know that the sides of a shape are the straight lines that form its outline. They should have experience of feeling models of the shapes and running their fingers along each side as they count. They may not be accurate when counting the sides, so encourage them to develop strategies such as marking sides as they count them. Children need to know that they can use the number of sides to identify the shape. They may have a standard mental image of, for example, a triangle, but should be aware that any shape with three straight sides is a triangle.
Now that children can add to the next 10, in this small step they perform additions that cross a 10 The calculations within this step all require children to add a 1-digit number to a 2-digit number, and knowledge of place value, in particular the fact that 10 ones make up 1 ten, is essential prerequisite knowledge and should be reinforced throughout. Links can be made to the learning from an earlier step where children partitioned a 1-digit number to make 10, and this idea can be applied to support working with greater numbers.
In Place Value, children revisit learning from Year 1 on numbers to 20. While children have already gone beyond this, the numbers from 11 to 15 often prove more difficult to understand, so this step provides an opportunity to revisit these numbers explicitly before moving on to look at numbers to 100 later in the block